２．Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii and Christianity (1)
Hawaii, an island of everlasting summer, is a popular tourist destination that thousands of Japanese people visit every day. However, Hawaii was once the place that many Japanese immigrants worked. It was the first time in a modern Japanese history that Japan established good relations overseas. Therefore, the massive horde of Japanese immigrants crossed the sea to Hawaii from 1885 to 1924.
The English explorer Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands in 1778. At that time the native tribes in Hawaii repeatedly fought each other. KamehamehaⅠ, who was born in Kohala, Hawaii, united all the Hawaiian Islands in 1796 and founded the Hawaiian Kingdom. The missionaries were sent from Boston, America in 1820, the dynasty of KamehamehaⅡ. The company was consisted of 18 members including a doctor, teacher, and printer. They were the first to give the spoken Hawaiian language a consistent written form and started schools and providing medical services. The missionaries from Boston successively came to Hawaii 15 times and finally they organized The Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association in 1863 and preached Christianity to the Hawaiian people. The Hawaiian Kingdom disowned idolatry and became a Christian nation. Hawaii began developing into a modern country.
Hawaii began accepting immigrants in the middle of 19th century to invest in development of the sugar cane industry. Chinese immigrants first began to crossed over the sea to Hawaii from 1852. A company of 153 Japanese immigrants unofficially came in 1868 (Meiji 1). Then, Portuguese came in 1878, and Germans and Scandinavians came in 1881. Japanese Immigrants got started coming to Hawaii in 1855, and Spanish immigrants in 1899. In 1900, immigrants came from Okinawa and also from Puerto Rico. Immigrants from Korea came in 1903 and immigrants from the Philippine Islands in 1906. And in 1900, the Hawaiian Islands became the U.S. territory
Around the time when Japanese immigrants began, many Japanese were suffering from extreme poverty caused by inflation after the Satsuma Rebellion and also from a poor harvest .
Man’s monthly average wage in Japan was 2 yen 11 sen 7 rin (One yen was
equal to 100 sen or 1000 rin, and one dollar was approximately equal to
1 yen 28 sen in 1891.) Then, people in poverty were caught by an announcement
of a town or a village office, “Why don’t you go to work in Hawaii? A man
can make 15 dollars a month including food expenses. And 10 dollars for
a woman.” The information seemed to be attractive to Japanese people in
poverty, so 2,800 people applied for the first recruitment. It was three
times of the number to be admitted.
Those who tried to find a way of survival left for Hawaii one after another. Most of them planned to make money and return home after working in a sugar cane field on three- year contracts. However, the cheap labor under the blazing sun was beyond of their imagination. They left their lodging house at dawn and worked until 4 in the afternoon. They were given only 30 minuets to eat lunch. If they stopped working to take just a little break they were ill-treated by overseers. Sometime they could not be absent from work due to sickness. Some of them died. They didn’t understand a language, therefore, they couldn’t even make an excuse. Those who cut down on food expenses were suffering from malnutrition. They could hardly save money and some of them were seeking comfort from gambling, drinking and prostitution. They couldn’t return home and many immigrants had stayed behind in Hawaii. However, others loved a life in Hawaii and decided to settle down.
Those who saved money returned home in glory three years later. Those successful men inspired many people in Japan to apply for immigrants to Hawaii. A ship that carried about 1,000 immigrants arrived at Honolulu one after the other. As a result, in 1896 (Meiji 29), the Japanese population ranked second in Hawaii, next to the Hawaiian population and in 1900 (Meiji 33) finally ranked first. In 1924 (Taisho 13), the Federal Immigration Act prohibited all immigration from Japan.Until then, 240,000 Japanese immigrants came to Hawaii. Persons of Japanese descent accounted for 40 % of the total population of Hawaii until 1960s. The immigrants organized an exceptionally huge Japanese community that supported the whole Hawaiian society.
It is said that there are three castles in the world that is called Kochi Castle. They are Kochi Castle located in Kochi city, Kochi Prefecture in Japan, Kakegawa Castle in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan and Kochi Castle in Honolulu.
Kochi Castle in Kochi city was constructed by Yamanouchi Kazutoyo. Yamanouchi
served Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu during the
Azuchi-Momoyama period and the Edo period.
He became the first feudal lord of the province of Tosa in 1600 (Keicho
5) and began to construct a castle that was designed after the model of
Kakegawa Castle in Shizuoka, his former post. The castle was completed
in 1603 (Keicho 8). However, most of the original fortress except Ottemon
(Ottemon gate ) burnt to the ground in a great fire in 1727 (Kyoho 12)
that broke out in the castle town. In 1749 (Kan’en 2), a castle keep (a
main tower) was rebuilt, that was a little smaller than that of the original
Kakegawa Castle was built by Asahina Yasuhiro, who was a retainer of the
warlord Imagawa Yoshitada in the Bunmei era (1469-1486), the Muromachi
period. Yamanouchi Kazutoyo, who was a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
came to station at Kakegawa in 1590 (Tensho 18). He completed a large-scale
renovation of the castle complex including stone walls, tile roof structures,
a keep and so on.
The castle came to take a modern appearance, however, it suffered from
extensive damage in 1854 (Ansei 1), due to the Ansei Tokai area earthquake.
Most structures including the keep broke down. The keep was not rebuilt
after the earthquake until a wooden keep was finally rebuilt in 1994 (Heisei
6). Kochi Castle should be called the second Kakegawa Castle. However,
Kakegawa Castle’s complicated history of construction is very difficult
to report in detail. We are a little hesitant to say this, but Kakegawa
Castle is the second Kochi Castle from our Kochi side.
The third Koch Castle, the Makiki Seijo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian Church),
is the purpose of this paper. The church is called the Castle Church in
Hawaii that was founded in 1932 by Rev. Takie Okumura (1865-1951). Being
a native in Kochi, he founded the church in imitation of Koch Castle.The
castle was a landmark of Honolulu just like the Aloha Tower at Honolulu
Harbor until it was surrounded by the high-rise buildings. The church came
on to a series of NHK T.V.
program Visiting World’s Impressive Towns (sekai fureai no tabi).
When Hawaiian sugar cane planters began recruiting workers, immigrant ships
from all over the world arrived at Honolulu Harbor. As a result, a downtown
area developed around the harbor. After that, the city stretched east to
west. Finally many tourists came to visit Waikiki that was located in far
eastern part of the city.
The Makiki Seijyo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian Church) was first built
known as the Makiki Church in 1904 in Makiki area that was in east part
of Honolulu downtown. Waikiki had not developed yet at that time.Until
then the church became the biggest Japanese church in Hawaii.
Since then, the church have played an important role for giving a place
that Japanese people came to gather. When they celebrated the25th anniversary
of the church, they planned to build the second church. Kochi Castle was
approved as a model of the second church building so that the new church
became an outstanding landmark in Honolulu and made Japanese immigrants
feel a warm nostalgia for their lives in Japan.
It has been 80 years since the Castle Church was built. But now there are
an extremely low number of fourth- and fifth-generation who know about
the history of Japanese immigrants and the old Japanese castle in Honolulu.
Many Japanese tourists visit Ala Moana Center, the largest shopping mall
in Hawaii, but there are also few Japanese tourists who know Koch Castle
located near the shopping center.
Around the time when Makiki Church was founded, Japanese immigrants tried hard to build a foundation of Japanese community. Pidgin English helped them to build their community. The first and second Makiki Church have observed the history that Japanese community made a significant contribution to Hawaii and became one of the leading Japanese communities throughout the world.
Kochi Castle in Honolulu played an important role in Hawaiian society.
At the same time, Rev. Takie Okumura engaged in social work such as education
for second-generation and a campaign against anti-Japanese movement.
Kochi Castle in Honolulu is almost as large as the original Koch Castle
in Japan. Those who come from Kochi to Hawaii surprise, “Look! It’s Kochi
Castle!” On the other hand, those who visit Koch from the Makiki Seijo
Christ Church are also happy to see the castle, “That’s incredible! Are
we in Makiki?”. The old castle builds a new relationship between the common
citizenry of Hawaii and of Kochi.
Koch Castle in Honolulu will surely act as a bridge over the Pacific Ocean
and will be the precious treasure for us from Kochi Prefecture. The paper
focuses on the third Kochi Castle and traces its history by referring to
the archive documents of the Makiki Seijo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian