|The Koch Castle in Honolulu (1) By Fusa Nakagawa
It is said that there are three castles in the world that is called Kochi Castle. They are Kochi Castle located in Kochi city, Kochi Prefecture in Japan, Kakegawa Castle in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan and Kochi Castle in Honolulu.
Kochi Castle in Kochi city was constructed by Yamanouchi Kazutoyo. Yamanouchi served Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Azuchi-Momoyama period and the Edo period.
He became the first feudal lord of the province of Tosa in 1600 (Keicho 5) and began to construct a castle that was designed after the model of Kakegawa Castle in Shizuoka, his former post. The castle was completed in 1603 (Keicho 8). However, most of the original fortress except Ottemon (Ottemon gate ) burnt to the ground in a great fire in 1727 (Kyoho 12) that broke out in the castle town. In 1749 (Kan’en 2), a castle keep (a main tower) was rebuilt, that was a little smaller than that of the original one.
Kakegawa Castle was built by Asahina Yasuhiro, who was a retainer of the warlord Imagawa Yoshitada in the Bunmei era (1469-1486), the Muromachi period. Yamanouchi Kazutoyo, who was a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, came to station at Kakegawa in 1590 (Tensho 18). He completed a large-scale renovation of the castle complex including stone walls, tile roof structures, a keep and so on.
The castle came to take a modern appearance, however, it suffered from extensive damage in 1854 (Ansei 1), due to the Ansei Tokai area earthquake. Most structures including the keep broke down. The keep was not rebuilt after the earthquake until a wooden keep was finally rebuilt in 1994 (Heisei 6). Kochi Castle should be called the second Kakegawa Castle. However, Kakegawa Castle’s complicated history of construction is very difficult to report in detail. We are a little hesitant to say this, but Kakegawa Castle is the second Kochi Castle from our Kochi side.
The third Koch Castle, the Makiki Seijo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian Church), is the purpose of this paper. The church is called the Castle Church in Hawaii that was founded in 1932 by Rev. Takie Okumura (1865-1951). Being a native in Kochi, he founded the church in imitation of Koch Castle.The castle was a landmark of Honolulu just like the Aloha Tower at Honolulu Harbor until it was surrounded by the high-rise buildings. The church came on to a series of NHK T.V.
program Visiting World’s Impressive Towns (sekai fureai no tabi).
When Hawaiian sugar cane planters began recruiting workers, immigrant ships from all over the world arrived at Honolulu Harbor. As a result, a downtown area developed around the harbor. After that, the city stretched east to west. Finally many tourists came to visit Waikiki that was located in far eastern part of the city.
The Makiki Seijyo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian Church) was first built known as the Makiki Church in 1904 in Makiki area that was in east part of Honolulu downtown. Waikiki had not developed yet at that time.Until then the church became the biggest Japanese church in Hawaii.
Since then, the church have played an important role for giving a place that Japanese people came to gather. When they celebrated the25th anniversary of the church, they planned to build the second church. Kochi Castle was approved as a model of the second church building so that the new church became an outstanding landmark in Honolulu and made Japanese immigrants feel a warm nostalgia for their lives in Japan.
It has been 80 years since the Castle Church was built. But now there are an extremely low number of fourth- and fifth-generation who know about the history of Japanese immigrants and the old Japanese castle in Honolulu. Many Japanese tourists visit Ala Moana Center, the largest shopping mall in Hawaii, but there are also few Japanese tourists who know Koch Castle located near the shopping center.
Around the time when Makiki Church was founded, Japanese immigrants tried hard to build a foundation of Japanese community. Pidgin English helped them to build their community. The first and second Makiki Church have observed the history that Japanese community made a significant contribution to Hawaii and became one of the leading Japanese communities throughout the world.
Kochi Castle in Honolulu played an important role in Hawaiian society. At the same time, Rev. Takie Okumura engaged in social work such as education for second-generation and a campaign against anti-Japanese movement.
Kochi Castle in Honolulu is almost as large as the original Koch Castle in Japan. Those who come from Kochi to Hawaii surprise, “Look! It’s Kochi Castle!” On the other hand, those who visit Koch from the Makiki Seijo Christ Church are also happy to see the castle, “That’s incredible! Are we in Makiki?”. The old castle builds a new relationship between the common citizenry of Hawaii and of Kochi.
Koch Castle in Honolulu will surely act as a bridge over the Pacific Ocean and will be the precious treasure for us from Kochi Prefecture. The paper focuses on the third Kochi Castle and traces its history by referring to the archive documents of the Makiki Seijo Kyokai (the Makiki Christian Church).
| The Koch Castle in Honolulu (2)
２．Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii and Christianity (1)
Hawaii, an island of everlasting summer, is a popular tourist destination that thousands of Japanese people visit every day. However, Hawaii was once the place that many Japanese immigrants worked. It was the first time in a modern Japanese history that Japan established good relations overseas. Therefore, the massive horde of Japanese immigrants crossed the sea to Hawaii from 1885 to 1924.
The English explorer Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands in 1778. At that time the native tribes in Hawaii repeatedly fought each other. KamehamehaⅠ, who was born in Kohala, Hawaii, united all the Hawaiian Islands in 1796 and founded the Hawaiian Kingdom. The missionaries were sent from Boston, America in 1820, the dynasty of KamehamehaⅡ. The company was consisted of 18 members including a doctor, teacher, and printer. They were the first to give the spoken Hawaiian language a consistent written form and started schools and providing medical services. The missionaries from Boston successively came to Hawaii 15 times and finally they organized The Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association in 1863 and preached Christianity to the Hawaiian people. The Hawaiian Kingdom disowned idolatry and became a Christian nation. Hawaii began developing into a modern country.
Hawaii began accepting immigrants in the middle of 19th century to invest in development of the sugar cane industry. Chinese immigrants first began to crossed over the sea to Hawaii from 1852. A company of 153 Japanese immigrants unofficially came in 1868 (Meiji 1). Then, Portuguese came in 1878, and Germans and Scandinavians came in 1881. Japanese Immigrants got started coming to Hawaii in 1855, and Spanish immigrants in 1899. In 1900, immigrants came from Okinawa and also from Puerto Rico. Immigrants from Korea came in 1903 and immigrants from the Philippine Islands in 1906. And in 1900, the Hawaiian Islands became the U.S. territory
Around the time when Japanese immigrants began, many Japanese were suffering from extreme poverty caused by inflation after the Satsuma Rebellion and also from a poor harvest .
Man’s monthly average wage in Japan was 2 yen 11 sen 7 rin (One yen was equal to 100 sen or 1000 rin, and one dollar was approximately equal to 1 yen 28 sen in 1891.) Then, people in poverty were caught by an announcement of a town or a village office, “Why don’t you go to work in Hawaii? A man can make 15 dollars a month including food expenses. And 10 dollars for a woman.” The information seemed to be attractive to Japanese people in poverty, so 2,800 people applied for the first recruitment. It was three times of the number to be admitted.
Those who tried to find a way of survival left for Hawaii one after another. Most of them planned to make money and return home after working in a sugar cane field on three- year contracts. However, the cheap labor under the blazing sun was beyond of their imagination. They left their lodging house at dawn and worked until 4 in the afternoon. They were given only 30 minuets to eat lunch. If they stopped working to take just a little break they were ill-treated by overseers. Sometime they could not be absent from work due to sickness. Some of them died. They didn’t understand a language, therefore, they couldn’t even make an excuse. Those who cut down on food expenses were suffering from malnutrition. They could hardly save money and some of them were seeking comfort from gambling, drinking and prostitution. They couldn’t return home and many immigrants had stayed behind in Hawaii. However, others loved a life in Hawaii and decided to settle down.
Those who saved money returned home in glory three years later. Those successful men inspired many people in Japan to apply for immigrants to Hawaii. A ship that carried about 1,000 immigrants arrived at Honolulu one after the other. As a result, in 1896 (Meiji 29), the Japanese population ranked second in Hawaii, next to the Hawaiian population and in 1900 (Meiji 33) finally ranked first. In 1924 (Taisho 13), the Federal Immigration Act prohibited all immigration from Japan.Until then, 240,000 Japanese immigrants came to Hawaii. Persons of Japanese descent accounted for 40 % of the total population of Hawaii until 1960s. The immigrants organized an exceptionally huge Japanese community that supported the whole Hawaiian society.
|The Koch Castle in Honolulu (3)
3．Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii and Christianity (2)
Japanese immigrants who arrived in Honolulu stayed for a few days at a
lodging house (It is called Sen-nin-goya in Japanese.) in Sand Island in
order to go through quarantine. They made a contract with a sugar cane
plantation owner during that time. Many of plantation owners were Westerners
who invested in business in Hawaii.
A certain immigrant died at the lodging house on February 16, 1885, who
arrived on February 8, 1885 as the first immigrant. A Christian funeral
was hold next day. Around fifty immigrants from Hiroshima Prefecture, his
hometown,attended the funeral and saw the deceased off to the cemetery.
The Hawaiian Evangelical Association invited Japanese people who were staying
at the lodging house to the church near by. Almost all of the immigrants
however, they accepted Christian customs and culture according to the Hawaiian
state religion. In 1887, Rev. Dr. C.M. Hyde of The Hawaiian Evangelical
Association began to have a worship at the Queen Emma Hall, that was located
in Honolulu downtown, to preach the Gospel to the Japanese immigrants.
The former YMCA was at that hall. In September 1887, knowing the miserable
life of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii, Rev. Kan’ichi Miyama,
who was studying in California at that time, came to Hawaii. He visited
Japanese immigrants who were working in the plantation fields in Hawaiian
islands and preached them to awe God and love their country. He also taught
them to lead a moderate life. In the meantime, lives of Japanese immigrants
changed, and as a result, they gradually increased their savings. Japanese
Consulate General in Honolulu acknowledged that Rev. Miyama helped the
immigrants to work hard and changed their lives.
Taro Ando, who was arrived in Honolulu in 1886 as the Japanese Consul General,
worked for immigrants so that they were able to change their way of thinking
and improved their life. Being impressed by an achievement of Rev.Miyama
in a short period of time he began to work with him on behalf of Japanese
immigrants. He was influenced by Rev. Miyama and finally accepted Christian
faith. On July 1888, Taro Ando, his wife and all the staff of the consulate
general were baptized. The Honolulu Japanese Christian Church (present-day
Nuuanu Congregational Church) was founded by Rev. Miyama.
Taro Ando and Rev. Miyama set the head office in the Honolulu Japanese
Christian Church and they worked for Japanese YMCA, a temperance society
and Japanese benefit society. On the other hand, Japanese immigrants who
finished their contracts and got a new job in Honolulu took part in activities
of Ando and Rev.Miyama. In 1889, Ando and Rev.Miyama left Honolulu. The
Honolulu Japanese Christian Church continued their activity. They started
an English evening school and many more Japanese people came to gather
at the church.
Japanese church was a spiritual home for Japanese immigrants until Japanese
Buddhism officially came to Hawaii in 1898. There were 14 Japanese churches
in Hawaii in the late 19th century. They were founded in Hilo, the Island
of Hawaii in 1888, and in 1889, in Koloa, Kauai, in Paia, Maui and in Ewa,
O’ahu. In 1890 in Hanapepe and Puunene, Kaua’i, in 1892 in Honomu, the
Island of Hawaii, in 1893 in Papaikou, the Island of Hawaii, in Lihue,
Kauai, in Kohala,
the Island of Hawaii and in 1895, in Wailuku and Ola, Maui.
According to the population census in 1896, the number of Japanese immigrants
were 24,407 that made up about 22.4% of the Hawaiian total population.
It was the second largest population next the local Hawaiian. Japanese
churches were founded in various places in Hawaii as a result of the growth
of the Japanese immigrants. Therefore,
quite a lot of churches built a preschool, a primary school and a night school attached to the churches.
Population of Various Races in Hawaii（1853－1960）
| The Koch Castle in Honolulu (4)
３．Takie Okumura Took A Passage to Hawaii
Tracing back Takie Okumura’s ancestry, his family goes back to Okumura
Nagatomi Sukeemon , who served Maeda Toshiie (1538-1599) in the feudal
domain of Kaga. Nagatomi’s third son Shigeaki left Kaga and later his son
Yasudayu came to serve Yamanouchi Kazutoyo. Yamanoutchi moved to Kakegawa,
Enshu region and then moved to Province of Tosa. Yasudayu followed Yamanoutch
to Tosa. Matajuro Okumura, the eleventh generation, who served Yamanouchi
Youdo, was father of Takie Okumura. Matajuro moved Edo and other places
in Tosa to work and Takie was born at a magistrate office in Tano, Aki
County. Yataro Iwasaki (the founder of the Mitsubishi Zaibatsu) was his
father’s minor employee at that time.
Matajuro’s family moved to Kochi city and Matajuro retired there, however,
many people came to meet him such as Shojiro Goto (Communications Minister,
Agricultural and Commerce Minister), Yataro Iwasaki, Takachika Fukuoka
(a member of Chamber of Elders, Privy Councilor), Kenkichi Kataoka (the
Speaker of the House of Representatives, the fifth President of Risshisha
political party, be related by marriage to Okumura family) and so on. Takie
who was a young boy came to admire those patriotic men.
In 1879 (Meiji 12), Takie Okumura entered Koch junior high school (the
predecessor of Koch Prefectural Koch Otemae High School), that was located
near the Koch Castle (the present capital of the prefecture). He received
an education to become a politician and was brought up in the idea of democratic
rights. He records as below―
“There is a saying that freedom was born among the mountains of Tosa. Patriots
like Itagaki and Kataoka organized Risshisha political party around Meiji
10 and they eagerly discussed a demand for democratic rights.
Politics ran high in Tosa, so everybody sticks his nose into argument.
Even a rickshaw man who was waiting for passengers discussed politics.
I was brought up in such an environment and was naturally influenced by
surroundings. Koch Junior high school I entered designed a curriculum for
training of political leaders. We
studied Representative Government by Spencer and Mill, books on constitution
by Russell, History of Civilization by Guizot and so on. We studied them
in the original language and also we read Principles of Political Law by
Rousseau in translation.”
In November, 1884, some members of Risshisha like Taisuke Itagaki, Emori
Ueki, Kenkichi Kataoka and so on invited missionaries such as Verbeck and
Thompson and asked them to give lectures. They hold such lecture meetings
a few times, however, they were mere study meetings for ordinary people.
Takie Okumura attended at every lecture meeting. After that, he went to
Osaka alone and became a clerk of Osaka Prefectural Police. Meanwhile,
in Kochi, Kenkichi Kataoka, Ansai Takechi, Setsuzo Nishimori and Yoshimasa
Hosokawa became Christian in 1885. They founded the Kochi Church.
In the fall of 1887 (Meiji 20), Kenkichi Kataoka, Naohiro Sakamoto led
the campaign of the three biggest petitions calling for “freedom of speech
and assembly”, “the land-tax reduction” and “the switch of the foreign
policy”. A large number of people, who came from Koch Prefecture, participated
in the campaign. Okumura was also called to join it by his friend of Kochi
so he quit Osaka Prefectural Police and went to Tokyo. Regulation for the
Preservation of Law and Order became effect in December 25, 1887. As a
result, activists were enforced to leave Tokyo.
Okumura left Tokyo temporarily. Meanwhile, Kenkichi Kataoka, Naohiro Sakamoto,
Setsuzo Nishimori Yoshimasa Hosokawa and Yukizumi Nishiyama (a husband
of Kao Hirai, who was Ryoma Sakamoto’s first love) were sent to Ishikawa-jima
The campaign of the three biggest petitions made Okumura’s life change.
During his stay in Tokyo, Kenkichi Kataoka advised him to go to church.
In September 1888 (Meiji 21) he was baptized at Osaka Church with his mother
and wife together. He decided to offer his life to Christ and entered Doshisha
Universiy of Theology in 1890 (Meiji 23). In August 1894 (Meiji 27) after
he graduated University, he was invited by the Board of the Hawaiian Evangelical
Association to become a pastor of the Honolulu Japanese Christian Church.
Until then, more than 2,000 Japanese went to Hawaii to work in the sugarcane field as immigrants of three-year
contracts. Life of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii was quite different from one of in Japan. They led a hard life among
Hawaiian, Chinese and Portuguese immigrants. Their living environment was extremely poor. They were exhausted
with the cheap labor under the blazing sun. Their community life was just
like a Japanese saying, “A man away fromhome need feel no shame.” Looking
their life, Rev. Okumura felt grievous and painful. He thought that he
had to not only do ministerial work for Japanese immigrants but also work
for Japanese community outside of the church. He immediately started to
The Honolulu Japanese Christian Church was located in Honolulu downtown.
The Japanese underworld in downtown became larger and there were many prostitutes
and rogues there. Rev. Okumura thought the place a disgrace to his country
and started a campaign in 1896 with his American co-worker to clean the
underworld . A Samurai spirit and the idea of democratic rights summoned
a young pastor up to fight against the underworld.
On top of that, Rev. Okumura founded a Japanese preschool in 1895 and a
Japanese elementary school and a dormitory in 1896. Until then, Japanese
children were speaking pidgin English that was mixture of Hawaiian, English
and Japanese. He also did a lot of work on running a church’s evening school
and an English school for working people.
He started Japanese YMCA again. As a board member of the Japan Benevolent Society, he founded the Japanese Charity
Hospital (which later became Kaukini Healthy System). He made steady progress
to lay the foundation of Japanese society.
| The Koch Castle in Honolulu (5)
４-1. The First-Generation Makiki Christian Church and the Aiyukai Fellowship 1902-1918 Rev. Okumura left the Honolulu Japanese Christian Church at the end of October, 1902. When he was inducted as a pastor of the Church in 1894, there were 93 church members. When he left the Church, its members reached 308 members. After leaving the Church, Rev. Okumura began church planting at Makiki, Manoa, Kaimuki in the eastern part of Honolulu city with help of Kametaro Maeda, who was led to have faith by Rev. Okumura. Their ministerial work was based on the Makiki Lecture Hall, that was opened when Rev. Okumura was the pastor of the Honolulu Japanese Christian Church.
At that time, they used omnibuses as public transportation. However, Rev. Okumura and his co-worker visited people on foot. Moreover, they took a lantern and hurried barefoot in spite of the rain to the night Bible meeting. They kept preaching the Gospel with unflagging enthusiasm and, consequently, they baptized ten people at the Makiki Lecture Hall in September 9, 1903. Thereafter, in April 8, 1904 the Makiki Christian Church was founded with 24 church members.
In 1905, as the number of church members became 53, they rented a house that admitted 100 people. When they celebrated the 1st anniversary of foundation, a large number of people attended, so church members had to go out on the veranda.
Rev. Okumura set up the Aiyukai Fellowship since in July, 1903, before the Makiki Christian Church was founded.
The purpose of the Aiyukai Fellowship was a mutual support, their fellowship and an employment service. Rev. Okumura called on Japanese people to join the Aiyukai Fellowship, “My fellow Japanese people those who left Japan and your family and relatives! Our church welcomes you. Let’s have a fellowship with good friends, help each other when we are sick and get into trouble. It is the most important for us, Japanese immigrants to have high hopes, enjoy sound refreshments and mutually help to work faithfully. Then, we are able to lead hopeful lives” He also founded an evening English school.
The Aiyukai Fellowship belonged to the Makiki Christian Church, but many Non-Christians also joined it. Some of them led a fast life. A certain young man ran away from his American employer’s house and was wandering about the country. They were given a warm welcome to Rev. Okumura’s home and became members of the Aiyukai Fellowship and attended at the church.
As the members of the church and of the Aiyukai Fellowship increased, the Makiki Christian Church needed a larger building. George Castle who supported Rev. Okumura bought a property for 2,000 dollar , which was located on the corner of Kinau Street and Pensacola Street, and donated it to the Makiki Christian Church in May, 1905. In September,1906, the new church building, that accommodated 400 people, was built by funds from contributions of in and out of the church. It was a very big building at that time. The number of church members were 111 and also the Aiyukai Fellowship were 98 including Non-Christians. The Aiyukai Fellowship engaged in mutual activities and the evening English school and also hold speech meetings once a month and the Bible study meetings once a week .
In June, 1908, the number of the the Aiyukai Fellowship members became 383 and 4 teachers taught 100 students at the evening English school. The scale of the fellowship was outstanding as a youth meeting in Hawaii. The Aiyukai Fellowship was based on the Christian spirit ,“It is more blessed to give than to receive”. The Japanese immigrant community had a weak relationship at that time. Therefore, the Aiyukai Fellowship aimed a social education. They worked to educate the members to improve themselves and cultivate spiritual strength, an ability to take action and patience so that the immigrants became leaders of the society.
In June, 1908, Rev. Okumura published a monthly newsletter “Aiyu Studies” to give the Japanese immigrants a chance of studying literature, acquiring knowledge and enjoying pastime. At the same time, a library was opened at the Aiyukai Fellowship building. Then members could contribute their prose and poetry to the monthly newspaper.
And it sometimes carried Japanese literature. It also carried an activity and a financial report of each department (a visiting people department, providing an employment department, a library department, an evening school) including more information about marriage of members, childbirth, sickness, unhappy events, returning home of members and new members. Rev. Okumura also dedicated his writing work to the newsletter. The library department subscribed several newspapers from Japan such as “the Kokumin Shinbun Newspaper”, “the Osaka Shinbun Newspapaer”, “ the Asahi Shinbun Newspaper” and “Boucho Shinbun Newspaper”. The Aiyu Studies was payed the expenses from the Aiyukai Fellowship and an advertisement commission.
At the sixth general meeting of the Aiyukai Fellowsip in July, 1909, the
employment department reported that they fixed 70 members up with a job.
And a monetary department was also set up in September, 1909. The Aiyu
monetary department aimed to encourage Japanese immigrants to save money.
Those who came to Hawaii to work couldn’t save money because of a small
pay. Therefore, they didn’t deposit money in a bank. On the contrary, they
had fallen into the bad habit of spending a small amount of money for a
drink, sweets and fruit. As a result, they couldn’t save money at all.
The Aiyu monetary department encouraged people to save a small amount of
money for their future lives. Like this,the Aiyukai Fellowship focused
its energies and strength on improvement of lives of the Japanese immigrants
| SPThanks Y KOMAI